GIT USEFUL PRACTICES

The terminal prompt below is currently in a directory decided to name “octobox”.

To initialize a Git repository here, type the following command:

–git init

our “octobox” directory now has an empty repository in /.git/. The repository is a hidden directory where Git operates.

Directory:
A folder used for storing multiple files.
Repository:
A directory where Git has been initialized to start version controlling your files.

Note:

The .git directory
On the left you’ll notice a .git directory. It’s usually hidden but we’re showing it to you for convenience.
If you click it you’ll notice it has all sorts of directories and files inside it.
You’ll rarely ever need to do anything inside here but it’s the guts of Git, where all the magic happens

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–git status

git status command to see what the current state of our project is

ex : # On branch master
# Initial commit
# nothing to commit (create/copy files and use “git add” to track)

I created a file called octocat.txt in the octobox repository for you (as you can see in the browser below).

You should run the git status command again to see how the repository status has changed:

type: git status

Tip: It’s healthy to run git status often. Sometimes things change and you don’t notice it.

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*** Notice how Git says octocat.txt is “untracked”? That means Git sees that octocat.txt is a new file.

To tell Git to start tracking changes made to octocat.txt, we first need to add it to the staging area by using git add.

–git add octocat.txt (adds in staging area)

staged:          Files are ready to be committed.
unstaged:     Files with changes that have not been prepared to be committed.
untracked:  Files aren’t tracked by Git yet. This usually indicates a newly created file.
deleted:        File has been deleted and is waiting to be removed from Git.
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Git is now tracking our octocat.txt file. Let’s run git status again to see where we stand:

add all:
You can also type git add -A . where the dot stands for the current directory, so everything in and beneath it is added. The -A ensures even file deletions are included.
git reset:
You can use git reset <filename> to remove a file or files from the staging area.
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**The files listed here are in the Staging Area, and they are not in our repository yet.
We could add or remove files from the stage before we store them in the repository.
To store our staged changes we run the commit command with a message describing what we’ve changed.

Let’s do that now by typing:

–git commit -m “Add cute octocat story”

Staging Area  A place where we can group files together before we “commit” them to Git.
Commit            A “commit” is a snapshot of our repository.
This way if we ever need to look back at the changes we’ve made (or if someone else does), we will see a nice timeline of all changes.

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Adding All Changes
use wildcards if you want to add many files of the same type. Notice that I’ve added a bunch of .txt files into your directory below.

I put some in a directory named “octofamily” and some others ended up in the root of our “octobox” directory.
Luckily, we can add all the new files using a wildcard with git add. Don’t forget the quotes!

git add ‘*.txt’

  1. Wildcards:
    We need quotes so that Git will receive the wildcard before our shell can interfere with it.
    Without quotes our shell will only execute the wildcard search within the current directory.
    Git will receive the list of files the shell found instead of the wildcard and it will not be able to add the files inside of the octofamily directory.
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Committing All Changes
Okay, you’ve added all the text files to the staging area. Feel free to run git status to see what you’re about to commit.

If it looks good, go ahead and run:

git commit -m ‘Add all the octocat txt files’

Check all the things!
When using wildcards you want to be extra careful when doing commits.
Make sure to check what files and folders are staged by using git status before you do the actual commit.
This way you can be sure you’re committing only the things you want.
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History
So we’ve made a few commits. Now let’s browse them to see what we changed.

Fortunately for us, there’s git log.
Think of Git’s log as a journal that remembers all the changes we’ve committed so far, in the order we committed them. Try running it now:

–git log

More useful logs:
Use git log –summary to see more information for each commit.
You can see where new files were added for the first time or where files were deleted.
It’s a good overview of what’s going on in the project.

logs :
commit 3852b4db1634463d0bb4d267edb7b3f9cd02ace1
Author: Try Git <try_git@github.com>
Date: Sat Oct 10 08:30:00 2020 -0500

Add all the octocat txt files

commit b652edfd888cd3d5e7fcb857d0dabc5a0fcb5e28
Author: Try Git <try_git@github.com>
Date: Sat Oct 10 08:30:00 2020 -0500

Added cute octocat story
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Remote Repositories
We’ve gone ahead and created a new empty GitHub repository for you to use with Try Git at https://github.com/try-git/try_git.git.

To push our local repo to the GitHub server we’ll need to add a remote repository.

This command takes a remote name and a repository URL, which in your case is

https://github.com/try-git/try_git.git.

Go ahead and run git remote add with the options below:

–git remote add origin https://github.com/try-git/try_git.git

git remote:
Git doesn’t care what you name your remotes, but it’s typical to name your main one origin.
It’s also a good idea for your main repository to be on a remote server like GitHub in case your machine is lost at sea during a transatlantic boat cruise or crushed by three monkey statues during an earthquake.
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Pushing Remotely
The push command tells Git where to put our commits when we’re ready, and boy we’re ready. So let’s push our local changes to our origin repo (on GitHub).

The name of our remote is origin and the default local branch name is master. The -u tells Git to remember the parameters, so that next time we can simply run git push and Git will know what to do. Go ahead and push it!

–git push -u origin master

**Branch master set up to track remote branch master from origin.**

Note:
git stash:
Sometimes when you go to pull you may have changes you don’t want to commit just yet. One option you have, other than commiting, is to stash the changes.
Use the command ‘git stash’ to stash your changes, and ‘git stash apply’ to re-apply your changes after your pull.

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Pulling Remotely

Let’s pretend some time has passed. We’ve invited other people to our GitHub project who have pulled your changes, made their own commits, and pushed them.

We can check for changes on our GitHub repository and pull down any new changes by running:

–git pull origin master
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Differences
Looks like there have been some additions and changes to the octocat family. Let’s take a look at what is different from our last commit by using the git diff command.

In this case we want the diff of our most recent commit, which we can refer to using the HEAD pointer.

–git diff HEAD

HEAD
The HEAD is a pointer that holds your position within all your different commits.
By default HEAD points to your most recent commit, so it can be used as a quick way to reference that commit without having to look up the SHA.

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Staged Differences
Another great use for diff is looking at changes within files that have already been staged. Remember, staged files are files we have told git that are ready to be committed.

Let’s use git add to stage octofamily/octodog.txt, which I just added to the family for you.

–git add octofamily/octodog.txt

Commit Etiquette:
You want to try to keep related changes together in separate commits.
Using ‘git diff’ gives you a good overview of changes you have made and lets you add files or directories one at a time and commit them separately.

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Staged Differences
Now run git diff with the –staged option to see the changes you just staged. You should see that octodog.txt was created.

— git diff –staged

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Resetting the Stage
So now that octodog is part of the family, octocat is all depressed. Since we love octocat more than octodog, we’ll turn his frown around by removing octodog.txt.

You can unstage files by using the git reset command. Go ahead and remove octofamily/octodog.txt.

— git reset octofamily/octodog.txt

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Undo
git reset did a great job of unstaging octodog.txt, but you’ll notice that he’s still there. He’s just not staged anymore. It would be great if we could go back to how things were before octodog came around and ruined the party.

Files can be changed back to how they were at the last commit by using the command: git checkout — <target>. Go ahead and get rid of all the changes since the last commit for octocat.txt

— git checkout — octocat.txt

The ‘–‘
So you may be wondering, why do I have to use this ‘–‘ thing? git checkout seems to work fine without it.
It’s simply promising the command line that there are no more options after the ‘–‘.
This way if you happen to have a branch named octocat.txt, it will still revert the file, instead of switching to the branch of the same name.

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Branching Out
When developers are working on a feature or bug they’ll often create a copy (aka. branch) of their code they can make separate commits to. Then when they’re done they can merge this branch back into their main master branch.

We want to remove all these pesky octocats, so let’s create a branch called clean_up, where we’ll do all the work:

— git branch clean_up

Branching
Branches are what naturally happens when you want to work on multiple features at the same time.
You wouldn’t want to end up with a master branch which has Feature A half done and Feature B half done.
Rather you’d separate the code base into two “snapshots” (branches) and work on and commit to them separately.
As soon as one was ready, you might merge this branch back into the master branch and push it to the remote server.

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Switching Branches
Great! Now if you type git branch you’ll see two local branches: a main branch named master and your new branch named clean_up.

You can switch branches using the git checkout <branch> command. Try it now to switch to the clean_up branch:

— git checkout clean_up

All at Once
You can use:
git checkout -b new_branch
to checkout and create a branch at the same time. This is the same thing as doing:
git branch new_branch
git checkout new_branch

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Removing All The Things
Ok, so you’re in the clean_up branch. You can finally remove all those pesky octocats by using the git rm command which will not only remove the actual files from disk, but will also stage the removal of the files for us.

You’re going to want to use a wildcard again to get all the octocats in one sweep, go ahead and run:

— git rm ‘*.txt’

Remove all the things!
Removing one file is great and all, but what if you want to remove an entire folder? You can use the recursive option on git rm:
git rm -r folder_of_cats
This will recursively remove all folders and files from the given directory
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Commiting Branch Changes
Now that you’ve removed all the cats you’ll need to commit your changes.

Feel free to run git status to check the changes you’re about to commit.

— git commit -m “Remove all the cats”

The ‘-a’ option
If you happen to delete a file without using ‘git rm’ you’ll find that you still have to ‘git rm’ the deleted files from the working tree.
You can save this step by using the ‘-a’ option on ‘git commit’, which auto removes deleted files with the commit.
— git commit -am “Delete stuff”

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Switching Back to master
Great, you’re almost finished with the cat… er the bug fix, you just need to switch back to the master branch so you can copy (or merge) your changes from the clean_up branch back into the master branch.

Go ahead and checkout the master branch:

— git checkout master
Pull Requests
If you’re hosting your repo on GitHub, you can do something called a pull request.
A pull request allows the boss of the project to look through your changes and make comments before deciding to merge in the change.
It’s a really great feature that is used all the time for remote workers and open-source projects.
Check out the pull request help page for more information.
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Preparing to Merge
Alrighty, the moment has come when you have to merge your changes from the clean_up branch into the master branch. Take a deep breath, it’s not that scary.

We’re already on the master branch, so we just need to tell Git to merge the clean_up branch into it:

— git merge clean_up

Merge Conflicts
Merge Conflicts can occur when changes are made to a file at the same time.
A lot of people get really scared when a conflict happens, but fear not! They aren’t that scary, you just need to decide which code to keep.
Merge conflicts are beyond the scope of this course, but if you’re interested in reading more, take a look the section of the Pro Git book on how conflicts are presented.

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Keeping Things Clean
Now all that’s left to do is clean up after yourself. Since you’re done with the clean_up branch you don’t need it anymore.

You can use git branch -d <branch name> to delete a branch. Go ahead and delete the clean_up branch now:

— git branch -d clean_up

Force delete
What if you have been working on a feature branch and you decide you really don’t want this feature anymore?
You might decide to delete the branch since you’re scrapping the idea.
You’ll notice that git branch -d bad_feature doesn’t work.
This is because -d won’t let you delete something that hasn’t been merged.

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The Final Push
Here we are, at the last step. I’m proud that you’ve made it this far, and it’s been great learning Git with you. All that’s left for you to do now is to push everything you’ve been working on to your remote repository, and you’re done!

— git push
You can either add the –force (-f) option or use -D which combines -d -f together into one command.

Note : Resources taken from Code School Site: Try Git Course. Try out to get hands on practice. cheers…

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